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Views that incorporate this intuition : The intuition that happiness consists of the absence of suffering is common in non-Western traditions, especially in Buddhism. 14 It is also a central part of Epicureanism. 15 Finally, it may constitute part of the explanation why a lot of people reject versions of consequentialism where the happiness of the many can outweigh the suffering of a few.

Views that incorporate this intuition

In addition to valuing suffering reduction, we might care about our personal well-being, about us and others fulfilling their dearest dreams and life-goals, about happiness and there being love and joy in the world, and many other, similar objectives. Interestingly, these other values beside concern for suffering often seem to be bounded, i.e. they seem to quickly reach diminishing returns once we optimize for them successfully.

Repugnant Conclusion 16 Imagine there is a civilization with ten billion maximally happy inhabitants who never experience any suffering. We have the option to introduce more lives and overall more happiness to the world by multiplying the number of people in that civilization by a factor of one billion. However, the way to bring about this population explosion will also lower the quality of life for all the beings, old and new. In the new civilization with ten billion billion people, each person will experience a lot of mild suffering, a decent amount of moderate suffering, and even some moments of strong suffering. People will also be happy a lot, such that most outsiders, as well as all the people themselves, would on the whole regard their existences as worth living. Should we choose to bring about the much larger, less happy civilization, or do we prefer the small(ish) but maximally happy one?

Repugnant Conclusion

While there are some people who argue for accepting the repugnant conclusion (Tännsjö, 2004), most people would probably prefer the smaller but happier civilization – at least under some circumstances. One explanation for this preference might lie in intuition one discussed above, “Making people happy rather than making happy people.” However, this is unlikely to be what is going on for everyone who prefers the smaller civilization: If there was a way to double the size of the smaller population while keeping the quality of life perfect, many people would likely consider this option both positive and important. This suggests that some people do care (intrinsically) about adding more lives and/or happiness to the world. But considering that they would not go for the larger civilization in the Repugnant Conclusion thought experiment above, it also seems that they implicitly place diminishing returns on additional happiness, i.e. that the bigger you go, the more making an overall happy population larger is no longer (that) important.


Computer Vision. RNNs are also quickly becoming pervasive in Computer Vision. For example, we’re seeing RNNs in frame-level Bos Co Womens Paige Dress Sandal Black 7CqrR
, image captioning (also including my own work and many others), video captioning and very recently visual question answering . My personal favorite RNNs in Computer Vision paper is Easemax Womens Comfy Back Zipper Ankle Strap Flats Sandals White oexZs3DBhC
, both due to its high-level direction (sequential processing of images with glances) and the low-level modeling (REINFORCE learning rule that is a special case of policy gradient methods in Reinforcement Learning, which allows one to train models that perform non-differentiable computation (taking glances around the image in this case)). I’m confident that this type of hybrid model that consists of a blend of CNN for raw perception coupled with an RNN glance policy on top will become pervasive in perception, especially for more complex tasks that go beyond classifying some objects in plain view.

Computer Vision.

Inductive Reasoning, Memories and Attention. Another extremely exciting direction of research is oriented towards addressing the limitations of vanilla recurrent networks. One problem is that RNNs are not inductive: They memorize sequences extremely well, but they don’t necessarily always show convincing signs of generalizing in the correct way (I’ll provide pointers in a bit that make this more concrete). A second issue is they unnecessarily couple their representation size to the amount of computation per step. For instance, if you double the size of the hidden state vector you’d quadruple the amount of FLOPS at each step due to the matrix multiplication. Ideally, we’d like to maintain a huge representation/memory (e.g. containing all of Wikipedia or many intermediate state variables), while maintaining the ability to keep computation per time step fixed.

Inductive Reasoning, Memories and Attention.

The first convincing example of moving towards these directions was developed in DeepMind’s Neural Turing Machines paper. This paper sketched a path towards models that can perform read/write operations between large, external memory arrays and a smaller set of memory registers (think of these as our working memory) where the computation happens. Crucially, the NTM paper also featured very interesting memory addressing mechanisms that were implemented with a (soft, and fully-differentiable) attention model. The concept of soft attention has turned out to be a powerful modeling feature and was also featured in ON Women Girls Faux Fur Winter Warm Ankel Boot Wide Calf Snow Boots TCZ18U
for Machine Translation and Memory Networks for (toy) Question Answering. In fact, I’d go as far as to say that

soft attention
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EWMA wish to investigate the barriers and possibilities of advanced therapies in the next generation wound management. As a primary deliverable EWMA will develop a document including an introduction to available advanced technologies.

EWMA is currently working on a document on the prevention and management of surgical site infections (SSI) in hospitals as well as community based health care settings. The document will be developed by an interdisciplinary author group.

EWMA is introducing a tailored stewardship concept to wound care practitioners. Aim of the stewardship programme is to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics by promoting, facilitating and teaching the use of antibiotic alternatives in wound management across all healthcare settings.

The European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) and EWMA have agreed to initiate a joint European advocacy project. The work is partly inspired by the EWMA collaboration from 2012-2015 with the Eucomed Advanced Wound Care Sector group (AWCS) in relation to the EU Joint Action on Patient Safety and Quality of Care (PaSQ).

The EWMA Oxygen Therapies Guidance document will provide practice-oriented guidance on the current use of various forms of oxygen therapies for wound treatment.

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EWMA is currently developing and testing a wound centre endorsement programme, aiming to support the development of high quality and multidisciplinary wound centres as well as increased knowledge sharing and collaboration between existing wound centres around the world.

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EWMA and Wounds Australia have developed this document, aiming to highlight some of the barriers and facilitators related to implementation of VLU guidelines as well as provide clinical practice statements to overcome these and “fill the gaps” currently not covered by the majority of available guidelines.

Since EWMA published a Position Document on “Topical Negative Pressure in Wound Management” in 2007, Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) has developed considerably. On this background, EWMA is developing a guidance document, which will focus on a wide array of factors influencing the organisation and use of NPWT.

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EWMA is working on a European curriculum for post graduate nurses, with the objective to support more standardised content in post graduate nurse education on wound management.

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The SWAN iCare consortium aims to develop a conceptually new therapy system equipped with information and communication technologies. EWMA is partner in this EU FP7 consortium and will contribute amongst other things by bringing the perspective of the patient and end users into the device development process.

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EWMA is currently conducting a "Cost of Wound Care Survey" in Germany. Results from this survey are expected to be ready in 2016. The survey will identify the number and type of wounds as well as treatment regimes and will provide an estimate of the amount of clinician time and inpatient bed-days directly attributable to wound care at an organisational level.

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